QUESTIONS / COMMENTS

Claire Macklin

DERA / CMS

How do People Relate to Displays?

Zack Jacobson Are you intending to make the results of your study available?

Claire Macklin We have to report to the customer first. The results will be written up in a DERA report and hopefully we will be able to write some other reports and make them available.

Milan Kuchta You mentioned the UAV simulation. The US Navy is looking at that, and you may be interested in looking at what they are doing.

Claire Macklin We have.

Martin Taylor Everyone talks about stored mental models, and Jim discussed Group Think. Perhaps it would be better to talk about a converged mental model.

Claire Macklin The idea is that a group of people have a shared idea.

Martin Taylor I disagree. You cant have a shared idea. The word "shared" is quite dangerous. The Group Think model is much better.

Claire Macklin There are questions in the literature as to whether the Shared Mental Model exists.

Martin Taylor It doesnt.

Jim Wise Do you have measurement techniques or models for measuring peoples responses?

Claire Macklin We had to use many techniques.

Claire Macklin There is a tool called CogNet, and they have developed a model. They give the program a situation and it models how a human would respond. That is something that we could look at that.

A lot of research has concentrated on individual personality differences, and has found that they have a large effect on how people react to situations.

Jim Wise There is literature on people who are scanners and can turn off the outside world. There is also a lot of literature on passive and directed attention. A book called "Flow" that describes all of the different mental states.

David Dews In my experience, one type of display may be more tiring to the user than another.

Milan Kuchta Is it reasonable to lower the amount of realism in a display as the user moves from a novice to an expert? The expert user can use a more abstract display.

Vincent Taylor Depending on what the task is, you can spend a lot of time looking at details on a diagram.

Claire Macklin You are de-cluttering the display.

Milan Kuchta Detail is distracting when it is not necessary.

Jim Wise There has been research that has looked at different types of warnings and how effective they are. Warnings are much more effective if you use representations that tap into the users emotions.

Claire Macklin There are some images that we perceive as threatening, and that are hard-wired into our brains. For instance, they did an experiment where they showed people pictures and gave them an electric shock. They found that they could instill an adverse effect with only showing a picture of a snake or a spider, but with items such as knives and guns, which are real dangers to modern man, they had to repeat the shock treatment many times to get an adverse effect. This showed that some things are hardwired in.